Publication Ethics

Michael Joanna Publications is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and CrossRef. The guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) have also been adopted.
Relationship between Michael Joanna-Published Journals
Michael Joanna-published journals are run independently and each has its own editorial board. However, authors who submit a manuscript to a journal outside the scope of same journal may be encouraged to submit it to another within its scope.
Study Design
Studies should be carried out to high standard of quality control and data analysis. Authors must document the approval of a formally constituted review board where applicable. Studies involving the use of animals must conform to the recommendations from the Declaration of Helsinki, NIH guidelines for care and use of laboratory animals or International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Authors guidelines should be strictly adhere to when preparing manuscripts. The journal reserves the right to make any further formal changes and language corrections necessary in a manuscript accepted for publication so that it conforms to the requirements of the journal.
Authorship should be based on considerable intellectual contributions to the following based on the recommendation of ICJME:
• concept and design of study or data acquisition, analysis and interpretation
• drafting or revising the article; and
• final approval of the version to be published
Authors are required to provide information on their precise contributions to the article. All authors must sign the copyright form and clearly certify that no one who has significantly contributed to the work has been denied authorship and those who assisted in the study have been duly acknowledged.
The corresponding author for each manuscript communicates with the journal office in matters relating to the manuscript.
Changes in Authorship
If there are needs for modification of authors list (addition or removed), the corresponding author must contact the journal office and state clearly the reason(s) for such modification. The journal reserves the right to contact author(s) who are added or removed from the list.
Peer Review
Manuscripts are initially evaluated for suitability for further peer review. Manuscripts that are outside the scope of the journal or short of the journal’s standard are rejected. All manuscripts submitted are subject to CrossCheck, a plagiarism detection tool powered by iThenticate. Manuscripts with plagiarized contents, redundancy or any form of fraudulence would be rejected.
Michael Joanna-published journals follow a single-blind review process. Suitable manuscripts are peer-reviewed by at least two reviewers who are experts in the field and are not affiliated with the contributors’ institutions. Selection of reviewers is at the sole discretion of the editor. The comments and recommendations of the reviewers are conveyed to the corresponding author. The author is requested to respond to reviewers’ comments and submit a revised version of the manuscript. This process is repeated till reviewers and editors are satisfied with the manuscript.
Reviewers ensure that papers submitted meet the following criteria:
• the title should reflect the content of the manuscript
• the content must fall within the scope of the journal
• findings should have significance
• the abstract should be adequately informative and suitable to appear on its own
• the content should be original
• the methodology used should be ethical, scientific, and reproducible
• results should be clearly interpreted and supported with data/photographs
• data should be logically discussed
• conclusions should be rationale, concise and based on the findings
• references should be adequate
Editorial Decisions
The review process and consequent editorial decisions are constructive and unbiased. Reasons for rejection include:
• out of journal’s scope
• too preliminary
• lack of novelty
• evidence of plagiarism, redundancy, or other form of fraudulence
Editorial decisions are based on reviewers’ recommendations.
Copyright and License Policies
From February 2015, copyright on an article published by Michael Joanna Publications is retained by the author(s). Authors grant the publisher, Michael Joanna Publications, a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.
Also, authors agree to publish articles under the terms of the creative commons Attribution 4.0 licence ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
In cases where an author is not allowed to be the copyright holder (such as US government or common wealth government employees), articles are licensed under a CC0 Public Domain Dedication (, which allows unlimited distribution and reuse of the article for any lawful purpose
Fabrication, falsification, redundancy, self-plagiarism, duplication, concealment, deceptive reporting, or misrepresentations of data constitute scientific misconduct. Hence, manuscripts containing any such are rejected.
Authors are to disclose whether or not a part of whole of the manuscript has been previously published. Previous publication of an abstract in a scientific proceeding, in print or electronically, does not deter submission for publication. Manuscripts that have been self-archived prior to publication must be replaced immediately with the published version as soon as it is made available.
Conflict of Interest
A conflict of interest exists when an author or author’s institution has a financial or other relationship with people or institution that may inappropriately influence the work submitted. All potential conflicts of interest should be stated. Such information could be used as a basis of editorial decision and may be published if they are believed to be important to readers in judging the article.
Human/Animal Rights and Informed Consent
Studies involving human subjects must be in accordance with ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation and the Declaration of Helsinki. It must and consent of the human subjects. It must also be stated if the study was approved by an Ethical Committee.
Similarly, studies involving the use of animals must conform to the institutional and National Institute of Health (NIH) guideline for the care and use of animals. Anaesthetic and surgical procedures used must be described in details.
CrossMark Policy
CrossMark is a multi-publisher initiative aimed at providing a standard way for readers to locate the current version of a content. By applying the CrossMark logo, Michael Joanna Publications maintains the contents it publishes and alerts readers to changes if and when they occur. Clicking on the CrossMark logo will tell readers the status of a document and may also give you additional publication record information about the document.
Plagiarism and Retraction Statement
Articles that are plagiarized or in any form compromise publication ethics will be retracted. The Journal publishes a retraction statement while leaving the original uncorrected article. Articles from the same author(s) may also be retracted. The author(s) may also be banned from submitting any content to the journal. Author fees will not be reimbursed. The journal reserves the right to take further legal action against the author(s).
The journal also publishes errata/corrigenda for articles with minor infractions while leaving the original uncorrected article.
Response to Allegations of Possible Misconduct
Allegations of possible misconduct are investigated thoroughly prior to and after publication. If necessary, the journal reserves the right to contact authors’ institutions, or funding bodies. If authors are found guilty of the allegation(s), the journal would take appropriate steps to correct scientific records.
COPE recommendations are adopted.
Publication Fees
To maintain open access, authors or research sponsors are charged a publication fee for each accepted article. See Publication Fees for details.
The publisher plans to archive its contents in any of the digital preservation services (Portico, CLOCKSS, LOCKSS and Pubmed Central) for electronic backup and preservation of access to the journals contents.
Michael Joanna Publications allows self-archiving of published contents. However, pre-prints should be immediately replaced with the final published version.
Michael Joanna Publications are Open Access Journals, hence the publisher depends on article publication costs which are only charged upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication (after thorough editorial evaluation and peer-review). Other sources of revenue include subscription to hard copies of journals, advertising, sales of journals/reprints, and institutional and organisational supports.
Advertisements from pharmaceutical companies, research institutes and other related fields are accepted. The marketing department of the publisher makes decisions regarding accepting adverts with recommendation from the editorial board. Adverts are placed online and in prints. Online adverts are usually linked with the official website of the advertising body.
Advertisement does not in any way constitute the publisher’s endorsement of the quality of products and/or services advertised.
Advertising revenue, memberships, donorship and sponsorship do not influence our peer-review process or editorial decision on submitted manuscripts.

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